15+ Basic Components Of A Building You must Know

Various Components Of A Building 

Various Components Of A Building
various component of building

Broadly speaking, a building basically consists of three parts, namely

1.      Foundation
2.      Sub-structure (plinth)
3.      Superstructure

Lets discuss in detail.

Various Components Of A Building
Various Components Of Building

1.      Foundation

 It is the lowest part of a structure below the ground level which is in direct contact with the ground and transmits all the loads to the ground.

Depending upon the type of soil existing at site, its safe bearing capacity and the type of building which is required to be constructed, a structure may need shallow or deep foundations.

Foundation ( PCC , foundation masonary ) , Various Components Of A Building
Foundation ( PCC , foundation masonary )

2.      Sub-structure (plinth)

 The portion of the building between ground surrounding the building and the top of the floor immediately above the ground is known as plinth.
The level of the surrounding ground is known as ground level and the level of the ground floor of the building is known as plinth level.

Sub Structure (Tile Flooring  , Concrete Flooring , Earth Filling) , Various Components Of A Building
Sub Structure (Tile Flooring  , Concrete Flooring , Earth Filling)

The plinth height should be such that after proper levelling and grading the ground adjoining the building (for proper drainage) there is no possibility of the rain water entering the ground floor.

The height of the plinth should be not less than 45 cm from the surrounding ground level.

The following parts are covered in the plinth,

1.      Damp Proof Course (D.P.C.)
2.      Flooring (Tiles, Marble, Concrete etc.) Bedding for flooring (B.B C.C.)

    3. Super Structure :

 It is that part of the structure which is constructed above the plinth level.

Important parts of super structure are shown in Figure  and described below.


doors , window , weather shed , lintel , various component of building


Load bearing walls transfer the load of superstructure to the plinth.

Walls are provided to enclose or divide the floor space in desired pattern. In addition, walls provide privacy, security and provide protection against sun, rain, cold, etc.

 (2) Floors :

 Floors are flat supporting elements of a building. The basic purpose of a floor is to provide a firm and dry platform for people and other items like furniture, stores, equipment etc.

The purpose of providing different floors is to divide the building in to different levels for creating more accommodation within the limited space.

 (3) Columns :

A column may be defined as an isolated vertical load bearing member. Columns transfers load from beams to the foundation.

(4) Roof :

It is the uppermost component of a building and its main function is to cover the space below and protect it from rain, snow, sun, wind etc.

A roof can be either flat, pitched or curved in shape.

(5) Doors :

The main function of doors in a building is to serve as a connecting link between internal parts and also to allow the free movement into and outside the building.

doors , window , weather shed , lintel , various component of building
Door ,  Window , Lintel

(6) Windows :

Windows are generally provided for the proper ventilation and lighting of a building.

As per I.S., minimum windows opening should be 10% of the floor area.

(7) Stair :

A stair is a structure consisting of number of steps leading from one floor to another floor.

The main function of stairs is two fold : firstly, to provide means of communication between the various floors and secondly that of escape from upper floors in the event of fire.

(8) Window sills :

Window sills are provided between the bottom of window frame and wall below, to protect the top of wall from wear and tear.

window sill level ,component of building
window sill below window

(9) Lintel :

The actual frame of a door or window is not strong enough to support the weight of the wall above the opening. Hence, a separate structural clement is provided over the door/windows opening. This is known as lintel, and is similar in character to a beam.

 (10) Beam :

 A structural member which carrier lateral or transverse forces is termed as beam. Beam  transfer loads from slab to the columns or walls.

(11) Chajja or whether shades :

Chajja or whether shades are generally combined with lintels of windows to protect them from sun, rain, frost etc.

 (12) Parapet wall : Parapet wall is constructed on the periphery of the roof slab to protect people from falling down the building.

parapet wall , weather shed , lintel various component of building
Parapet wall

 (13) Coping

Coping is provided on the top of parapet wall. It prevents entry of rainwater / moisture from top of wall and improves asthetic of a building.

concrete coping , various component of building

(14) Building Finishes :

Building finishes are used to give protective covering to various building components and at the same time, they provide decorative effects. Building finishes consists of the following items:

finishing of building , various component of building
finishing of building
  1. Plastering
  2.  Painting
  3.  Pointing
  4.  Varnishing and Polishing
  5.  Distempering
  6. White washing 
  7. Colouring

(15) Building Services:

Building services include services like

  1. Water supply 
  2. Drainage
  3. Sanitation
  4. Lighting
  5. Acoustics
  6. Electricity
  7. Air conditioning
  8. Ventilation
  9. Anti-termite treatment, etc.
  10. Fire detection and Fire control
hand pump , water supply ,  various component of building
water suppy system

The services like water supply, drainage and sanitation normally clubbed under the term ‘plumbing services.

 From consideration of safety of the users, the planning, designing and detailing of all services also based on norms prescribed by should be done based on provisions in the National Building Code and also based on norms prescribed by various statutory municipal bodies.

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