let’s first discuss what is deep foundation ?
- pile foundation
PILE FOUNDATION :
Why we use Pile Foundation?
- When safe bearing capacity of soil is not good.
- When water table is at higher depth.
- When there are no hard strata available at a lower depth.
- When the dewatering for shallow footing is higher.
- When their is very heavy load.
- When foundation carrying nonuniform load.
- When anchoring of structure is required.
- To construct structure in marine area.
- load-bearing pile
- nonload bearing pile
1.Load bearing pile
2.Non load-bearing pile
Main Classification of Pile
- base one function
- base on material
1. Type of Pile Base On Function.
Pile are classified base on function as following manner,
- Bearing Piles or End Bearing Piles
- Friction Piles or Skin Friction Piles
- Sheet Piles
- Tension Piles or Uplift Piles
- Anchor Piles
- Batter Piles
- Fender Piles
- Compaction Piles
1. Bearing Piles or End Bearing Piles
End bearing piles are transmitting load by using the end component of the pile. in this type of pile, the base of the pile is rest on hard strata i.g. rock. the pile is driven up to hard strata. following are the pictures of end-bearing piles.
|End Bearing Pile|
|End Bearing Pile|
2. Friction Piles or Skin Friction Piles
- by increase diameter of pile.
- by increase length of pile.
- by reducing spacing between adjacent piles.
- by making a pile of a rough surfaces.
3. Sheet Piles
Sheet pile are not designed for taking vertical load but it is used retain soil/water as retraining wall.
4. Tension pile/Uplift pile
This type of piles is used for anchoring structures with soil strata. This type of piles are used when their is high uplift pressure. When structure is tall due to wind pressure or earthquake or horizontal force structure try to overturn at ground level so it generates tensile stress in Foundation that why tension piles/Uplift piles are used for the resistance of the overturning of structure.
5. Anchor piles
This type of piles are used for anchoring the structure against high lateral pulls.
|Tension Pile/Anchor Pile|
6. Batter piles
This type of piles are place inclide in ground to resist horizontal thrust which is product by structure.this type of piles are used in marine structures.
7. Fender piles
This type of piles is used to protect waterfront structures or marine structures from the floating materials & impact of ships.
8. Compaction pile
This type of pile are not used for carrying vertical load , but it is used for increasing bearing capacity of soil strata.
2. Type of pile Foundation base on materials
Following are the type of pile Foundation base on material of pile.
So lets we discuss one by one,
1. Concrete Pile
In this type of pile concrete/reinforced concrete is used as material. This type of piles are strong,durable and economical also. this type of piles are widely used in construction field.
Type of concrete piles
1.pre cast piles
3.cast in situ piles
1. Precast piles
This type of pile is casted on factories and they are transported on-site. this type of pile is readymade available. this type of piles are carried out on construction site and then using pile driving equipment this type of piles are driven.
The shape of the pile may be square, rectangular, circular.
In this type of piles stressed reinforcement are used.stress in reinforcement is developed by applying opposite direction force on ends of reinforcements.
This type of piles are strong but costly also.
3. Cast in situ piles
Following steps are carried out.
1.boring of pile hole.
2.making reinforcement cage.
3.lowering reinforcement cage.
4.concreting of pile hole.
|Cast in situ Piles|
Quality of this type of piles are depend open quality of concrete and quality of workers.
2. Steel piles
In this type of pile steel section are used for vertical load transportation. The following sections are widely used
|Box Steel Piles|
|Tube Steel Piles|
This type of section are penetrated by heavy load or driving equipment.
3. Timber piles
In this type of pile timber as a material is used. At the bottom of the pile steel shoe is provided to easily driving of pile.
4. Composite piles
In this type of pile, two or more than two materials are used.
For example, concrete+timber…means the advantage of durable concrete and the cheapness of timber is taken.
5. Sand Piles
In this pile, sand is used as basic material. And at the top of sand pile plug of concrete is provided. Sand is compacted by hammering.
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