Deep Foundation | Type of Deep Foundation In Civil Engineering |

                                     Deep Foundation 

                             | Type of Deep Foundation |

Deep Foundation | Type of Deep Foundation In Civil Engineering |

let’s first dicuss what is deep foundation  ?

When depth of footing is larger then width of footing then this type of foundation are called deep foundation.
basically there are three type of deep foundation,
  1. pile foundation
  2. cassions
  3. cofferdams
In this article we will study about pile Foundation in detail.

Pile Foundation

It is the type of deep foundation in which a long cylinder of different material like concrete,steel,timber etc are used.
Deep Foundation | Type of Deep Foundation In Civil Engineering |
Pile Foundation

Why we use Pile Foundation ?

  • When safe bearing capacity of soil is not good.
  • When water table is at higher depth.
  • When there is no hard strata available at lower depth.
  • When cost of dewater for shallow footing is higher.
  • When their is very heavy load.
  • When foundation carrying nonuniform load.
  • When anchoring of structure is required. 
  • To construct structure in marine area.
basically their are two type of pile  base on load bearing.
  1. load bearing pile 
  2. non load bearing pile 

1.Load bearing pile 

this type of pile are used for transmit vertical load which is coming from above structure.

2.Non load bearing pile 

this type of pile are not designed for transmit vertical load .  but it is used for other purpose like compaction of soil strata below ground.

Main Classification of Pile

  1. base one function
  2. base on material

1. Type Of Pile Base On Function.

Pile are classified base on function as following manner,

  1.  Bearing Piles or End Bearing Piles
  2.  Friction Piles or Skin Friction Piles
  3.  Sheet Piles
  4.  Tension Piles or Uplift Piles
  5.  Anchor Piles
  6.  Batter Piles
  7.  Fender Piles
  8.  Compaction Piles

  1.  Bearing Piles or End Bearing Piles

End bearing piles are trasmit load by using end component of pile.in this type of pile the base of pile is rest on hard strata i.g. rock. pile are driven upto hard strata. following are the pictures of end bearing piles.

Deep Foundation | Type of Deep Foundation In Civil Engineering |
End Bearing Pile

Deep Foundation | Type of Deep Foundation In Civil Engineering |
End Bearing Pile

2. Friction Piles or Skin Friction Piles

In this type of pile load is basically transform by skin friction of pile.

For incresing load carrying capacity of pile follow things are follow
  • by increase diameter of pile.
  • by increase length of pile.
  • by reducing spacing between adjacent piles.
  • by making pile of rough surface.
Deep Foundation | Type of Deep Foundation In Civil Engineering |
Friction Pile

3. Sheet Piles

Sheet pile are not designed for taking vertical load but it is used retain soil/water as retraining wall.
Deep Foundation | Type of Deep Foundation In Civil Engineering |
Sheet piles
Deep Foundation | Type of Deep Foundation In Civil Engineering |
Sheet piles

4.Tension pile/Uplift pile

This type of piles are used for anchoing structure with soil strata.This type of piles are used when their is high uplift pressure.When structure is tall due to wind pressure or earthquake or horizontal force structure try to overturn at ground level so it generates tensile stress in Foundation that why tension piles/Uplift piles are used for resistanting overturning of structure.

Deep Foundation | Type of Deep Foundation In Civil Engineering |
Add caption

5.Anchor piles

This type of piles are used for anchoring the structure against high lateral pulls.

Deep Foundation | Type of Deep Foundation In Civil Engineering |
Tension Pile/Anchor Pile

6.Batter piles

This type of piles are place inclide in ground to resist horizontal thrust which is product by structure.this type of piles are used in marine structures.

Deep Foundation | Type of Deep Foundation In Civil Engineering |
Batter Piles

7.Fender piles

This type of piles are used to protect water front structures or marine structures from the floating materials & impact of ships.

Deep Foundation | Type of Deep Foundation In Civil Engineering |
Fender Piles

8.Compaction pile

This type of pile are not used for carrying vertical load , but it is used for increasing bearing capacity of soil strata.

Deep Foundation | Type of Deep Foundation In Civil Engineering |
Compaction Piles

2. Type of pile Foundation base on   materials

Following are the type of pile Foundation base on material of pile.
1.concrete pile
2.steel pile
3.timber pile
4.composite pile
5.sand pile

So lets we discuss one by one,

1.concrete pile

In this type of pile concrete/reinforced concrete is used as material.This type of piles are strong,durable and economical also.this type of piles are widely used in construction field.

Type of concrete piles
1.pre cast piles
2.prestress piles
3.cast in situ piles

1. Pre cast piles

This type of pile are casted on factores and they are transported on site.this type of piles are readymade available.this type of piles are carried out on construction site and then using pile driving equipment this type of piles are driven.
Shape of pile may be square, rectangular, circular.

Deep Foundation | Type of Deep Foundation In Civil Engineering |
PreCast piles

2.Prestress piles

In this type of piles stressed reinforcement are used.stress in reinforcement is developed by applying opposite direction force on ends of reinforcements.
this type of piles are strong but costly also.

Deep Foundation | Type of Deep Foundation In Civil Engineering |
Prestress Piles

3.Cast in situ piles

This type of piles are also widely used. In this piles are made on construction site.

Following steps are carried out.
1.boring of pile hole.
2.making reinforcement cage.
3.lowering reinforcement cage.
4.concreting of pile hole.

Deep Foundation | Type of Deep Foundation In Civil Engineering |
Cast in situ Piles

Quality of this type of piles are depend open quality of concrete and quality of workers.

2.Steel piles

In this type of pile steel section are used for vertical load transportation.

The section which are used are

1.box section
2.H section
3.Tube section

Deep Foundation | Type of Deep Foundation In Civil Engineering |
H-Steel Piles

Deep Foundation | Type of Deep Foundation In Civil Engineering |
Box Steel Piles

Deep Foundation | Type of Deep Foundation In Civil Engineering |
Tube Steel Piles

Deep Foundation | Type of Deep Foundation In Civil Engineering |

This type of section are penetrated by heavy load or driving equipment.

3.Timber piles

In this type of pile timber as a material is used. At the bottom of the pile steel shoe is provided to easily driving of pile.

Deep Foundation | Type of Deep Foundation In Civil Engineering |
Timber Piles

4.Composite piles

In this type of pile two or more then two material are used.
For example concrete+timber…means advantage of durable of concrete and chepness of timber is taken.

Deep Foundation | Type of Deep Foundation In Civil Engineering |
Composite Pile

5.Sand piles

In this pile sand is use as a basic material. And at the top of sand pile plug of concrete is provided. Sand is compacted by hammering.

Deep Foundation | Type of Deep Foundation In Civil Engineering |
Sand Piles
I will make saperate article on Cassions and Cofferdam because It’s been too long.
I Hope You Like Our ArticleDeep Foundation | Type of Deep Foundation | ” Please Dont Be Cheap To Share This Article with your Friends.

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