Plants and Equipments used in Construction Projects
List of various plants and equipments which are used in construction life is given below
- Equipment for Excavation
- Earthmoving Equipment
- Hauling Equipment
- Hoisting Equipment
- Conveying Equipment
- Pumping Equipment
- Compacting Equipment
- Pile Driving Equipment
- Machineries for concrete works
- Machineries for bituminous works
- Dredging Equipment
1)Equipment for Excavation
- To carried out work below operating level, Dragline is used.
- Dragline is used in moist soil or sandy soil.
- It is the modified version of power shovel in which length of boom is increase.
2) Earthmoving Equipment
Hoisting Equipments are classified as below.
- Deric – Pole
- Tower crane
- Gin – Pole
- Shear leg
- Latice girder
- Power driven scotch derric crane
- Hand operated crane
- Bocks/ Jacks
- Locomotive crane
- Gantry crane.
|Deric – Pole|
|Gin – Pole|
7) Compacting Equipments
Compacting Equipments are classified as below
For earth compaction
- Smooth Wheel Rollers
- Sheep Foot Roller
- Pneumatic Rollers
- Grid roller
- Tamping Roller
- Vibrating roller
- Vibrating plates
- Vibratory compactors
- Internal vibrator
- Surface vibrator
- Platform vibrator
- Form vibrator
|Smooth Wheel Rollers|
These rollers can move back and forward without taking turns. These rollers are suitable for sand, gravel, broken rock, etc. Such rollers are useful for crushing highway base courses and for finishing clay surfaces.
2.Sheep foot roller
|Sheep foot roller|
This type of roller has a metal hollow cylindrical over which sheep legs of 0.2m length are fitted, so that the process of kneading the soil during rolling is due to pressure from its sheep feet. Weight of dum is about 5 ton to 10 ton.
This type of roller varies from small size roller to 203 tonnes of capacity. This type of roller used for kneading action.This roller is useful for both cohesion-less sand and gravel as well as clay soil.
4. Vibrating Rollers
This type of roller produces vibrations in the upper layers of the soil so that the grains of soil are compacted
for concrete compaction:
This vibrator is also called Needle vibrator.
Needle diameter varies from 20 to 75 mm and 25 cm to 90 cm in length. Such vibrators produce 7000 to 12000 vibrations per minute.
This type of vibrator consists of one or two electric vibrating units mounted on a flat plate, this flat plate being placed on the surface of the concrete. The vibration of the plate produces vibration in the concrete below, such vibrators are used for structures such as concrete dams, retaining wall, bridge pillars, road etc.
3.Platform Vibrator (Table vibrator)
This type of vibrator is fitted with a table. The article that is to be vibrated is placed on the table. Its used in testing units of concrete.
Form vibrator also called an external vibrator or shutter vibrator. Such vibrators are fitted with a clamp on the surface of the formwork. Vibration of formwork causes the inside vibration of the concrete.
8)Pile driving equipments
Pile driving Equipment are classified as a..
1. Pile frame
Pile Fame is used to keep the pile in the correct position. Pile frame is usually made of steel and it height is about 10m to 25m. Pile Frame should be lightweight.
Pile hammer are used to penetrate pile in ground.
Type of pile hammer
- Drop hammer
- single – acting steam hammers
- Double – acting steam hammers
- Differential – acting steam hammers
- Diesel hammers
- Vibratory hammers
9)Machineries for concrete works
For batching and mixing of concrete following Equipments are used.
1. Batch mix plant
2. Transit mixers
1.Batch mix plant
|Batch mix plant|
Batching is the process of gathering the required amount of material shocks, such as course aggregate (C A), fine aggregate (F A), cement and water. Batcher is used for batching.
This type of mixers is used when delivering freshly mixed concrete from central batch and mixing plants to other locations. Fully mixed or partially mixed concrete is delivered to the site by truck mixer
To keep fully mixed concrete, the drum is rotated continuously, so that segregation not take place
10)Machineries for bituminous works
Main Equipments used for bituminous work are..
1.Batch type hot mix plant
1.Batch type hot mix plant
|Batch type hot mix plant|
This type of plant is used to obtain bituminous of high quality for large work. This is a modern type of plant. This type of plant is almost permanent.
Paver is used to achieve a clean, strong and level surface of bituminous road. The chamber of paver accept the quantity of asphalt concrete from the damper.The bottom of the chamber has a slot adjustable to accommodate the fixed thickness of asphalt concrete. Usually the width of the paver is the same as the traffic lane. however, it has the capability to reduce it as needed.
Dredging Equipments are used to remove soil, sediment, debris, etc. Which is deposited at the bottom of the sea, river, lake, canal, etc.
The different types of Dredging Equipments are as follows
1.Bucket – ladder dredgers
1.Bucket – ladder dredgers
|Bucket – ladder dredgers|
This type of dredger consists of a continuous chain mounted on a ladder. Buckets are attached to the chain. As the chain is constantly rotating, the bucket is filled with mud. The mud is placed in a hopper which is placed in a ship.
In this type of dagger, a grab is hanged with a rope from a large pontoon. Grab is open in normal mode. It is lowered to the bottom of the water and inserted into the mud so that the sludge is filled with grabs. The grab is then closed and lifted with proper adjustment. The grab is operated by a crane. This type of dredger is used for cleaning sand, dirt, mud, etc.
It has a revoling boom fitted with a frame in a large pontoon. The dipper stick attaches boom and bucket. Dipper stick apply pressure on bucket so that bucket will fill with soil/silt. This type of dredgers are useful for hard soil.
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